- “Alcohol is the second highest source of energy, on a per gram basis, of all the macronutrients. In contrast to other energy sources……The mechanisms linking alcohol consumption with an enhanced visceral lipid deposition are not completely understood. Alcohol consumption leads to a suppression of fat oxidation and thereby favours lipid storage . Furthermore, alcohol increases the release of glucocorticoids via stimulation of the hypothalamicpituitary-adrenal axis . Increased cortisol secretion has been reported with an altered fat distribution pattern . Cortisol binds to glucocorticoid receptors, which have a particularly high density in visceral fat deposits; this promotes lipid accumulation and retention in visceral adipose tissue
- Waist circumference increased across categories of alcohol consumption in men. A significant association of alcohol consumption with abdominal obesity and exceeding energy intake recommendations was found among men reporting consumption of more than 3 alcoholic drinks per day. Controlling for energy underreporting did not significantly change these associations”
- Policy implications: “Problem drinkers (including binge drinkers and heavy chronic drinkers) tend to choose cheaper alcoholic beverages because they seek to maximize ethanol intake for the money they spend . In the United States, the top 10% of drinkers spend approximately $0.78 per drink compared with $4.75 per drink for the bottom 50% of drinkers. This fact provides a strong rationale for the use of measures that increase the price of the cheapest drinks.”
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